Basics about Bacteria

Basics about Bacteria, Spores, Viruses, Protozoas, Endotoxins, Exotoxins, Prions and Fungi[more]

Bacterial persistance. Growth, Persistence and Resistance

Genetic research assumptions about the role of toxin-antitoxin system in the mechanisms of resistance of bacterial cells.[more]

Viable but not Culturable State

The mechanism of inhibition of contact-dependent growth allows some bacteria to inhibit the growth of other bacteria nearby.[more]

Contamination, infection and fouling

Search for active composites is about an effective solution against bacterial contamination of medical devices.[more]

Viruses as Contaminants

The viral infection is a significant risk to laboratory personnel. Steam sterilization effectively destroys viruses.[more]


The prion protein responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) can be denatured by autoclaving.[more]

Pyrogens and Bacterial Endotoxins

Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) are pyrogenic (cause fever), and are more difficult to remove the bacterial cells.[more]

Other Methods of sterilization

Sterilization methods include dry heat sterilization, irradiation, sterilization with ethylene oxide and peracetic acid.[more]

Sterilization of spores and toxins

An overview of sterilisation methods for the sterilisation of spores endotoxins, exotoxins and pyrogenes.[more]

Theory of Sterilization

Theoretical aspects of the autoclave. Combined effects of temperature and pressure in a steam autoclaving.[more]

Definition of Sterilization

Sterilization - process that eliminates or kills all forms of microorganisms and infectious proteins such as prions.[more]

Autoclaving Prions

Sterilizing prions requires denaturation to prevent induction of abnormal folding of normal prions[more]

Autoclave Guide - Introduction to the CertoClav knowledge base

CertoClav Autoclave guide provides information about the functioning, operating and maintenance of autoclave sterilizers and the sterilization process.[more]

Autoclave operation, functioning and cleaning

The principles of autoclave operation: loading, operating and unloading the autoclave, malfunctions and spill clean-up indications.[more]

Potential risks and safety rules for autoclaving

Steam autoclaves use high pressure and temperature steam for sterilization which is linked to potential safety issues for autoclave operators.[more]

Chemical and biological autoclave indicators

How to validate that the autoclave is working properly? Autoclave indicators – chemical and biological indicators.[more]

How does a steam autoclave work?

A steam autoclave is designed to work with high temperature and pressure to sterilize microorganisms[more]

Language Selection 


We are at your service

Give us a call at +43 7229 6890 (German/English) or email us: